Sociology also devotes some attention to certain aspects of the geographical environment and to some natural as contrasted with human phenomena, but this interest is secondary to its preoccupation with human beings and the products of human life in association. If our behaviour was in our genes then people all around the world would behave in the same way. Similarly, Sociology does not confine itself to the study of this society or that particular society. Sociology whose function it would be to inter-relate the results of the special social sciences and to deal with the general conditions of social life. It only studies human activities in a general way. Macro-sociology does concern individuals, families, and other aspects of society, but it always does so in relation to the larger social system to which they belong. The chief interest of sociology is the people, the ideas, the customs, the other distinctively human phenomena which surround man and influence him, and which are, therefore, part of his environment.
The scholastic philosophy was a conservative philosophy. In 1905, the , the world's largest association of professional sociologists, was founded, and in 1909 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie German Society for Sociology was founded by and , among others. There are seven major founders of sociology: , , , , , , and. To construct a building we collect materials like cement, bricks, lime, iron, steel, sand, wood etc. The fact that sociology deles with the social universe distinguishes it from astronomy, physics, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics and others physical sciences. Sociology has been compared with Geometry. Like psychologists, sociologists are also concern with how people adjust to the difficulties of life.
They are not even to be studied dispassionately; for instance, subjects like sex life and religion evoke great controversies. He has differentiated between society and community on the basis of forms of relationships. The relation of Sociology to other social sciences is similar to the relation of Geometry with other natural sciences. MacIver correctly remarks, What distinguishes each from each is the selective interest. It is different from other sciences in certain respects.
Finally, Freud 1856-1939 characterized us as creatures of internal conflict. Until we cease to employ terms with vague meanings, our terminological inefficiency will remain an obstacle in the way of sociology developing into a science. Scope of Sociology : Two different views about the scope of Sociology: There is no one opinion about the scope of Sociology. The stimulation your brain gets from environmental interaction is what shapes you as you grow and learn. Sociology came from the two prominent languages of early advanced civilization. George Simmel believed social interactions take various forms, such as cooperative, competitive and subordinate relationships.
Talcott Parsons demonstrated with models how the parts of society harmoniously work together. Sociology is a general science not a special science. After collating the data, we classify, synthesize, tabulate, and compare the data, making whatever tests and computations are necessary to help find the result. Man has now reached the scientific stage so far as his thinking about natural phenomenon is concerned but his thinking about society was-still in the metaphysical stage. Criticism: i Sociologist alone does not study the forms of social relationships. Aristotle differed primarily in his belief that both body and soul contributed to our human identity. This experiment was much like the one done by Ivan Pavlov and the dog.
As such the major task of this sub-division refers to three main areas of enquiry: a analysis of basic characteristics of socio-cultural phenomena in its structural aspect, b a study of the major and repetitive forms of social processes and their dynamic aspects and c description of the uniform social relationship and interdependence between various aspects of socio-cultural phenomena. There are greater feelings of independence among women and children. The best example of the prim ary group is the family. In sociology, the group is viewed in a differ ent way. It enables man to have a better understanding both of himself and of others. However, both the schools complement to each other. In the dynamic aspect, Sociology studies various social processes like social contact, interaction, socialization, conflict, domination, subordination, etc.
The study of social structure should include demography, that is, the branch of study concerned with various aspects of human population and how they affect or are affected by the social relations. The researcher describes and selects the respondents to be used in the study. According to Tonnies t hese societies have often contractual relationships which are on the basis of clear cut, legal contracts rather than being governed by traditions. It tries to make generalisations on the basis of the study of some selected events. It has been said surprisingly enough by some critics that Sociology does not have a subject-matter of its own and that it is hotchpotch of different social sciences. An in-depth analysis of the internal logical characteristics is used to highlight the nature of sociology.
The researcher analyzes the data and determines the implications of researches. What was the first school in the Philippines which offered a bachelor degree in Sociology? Similarly, without the investigation carried on by Sociology, no real effective social planning would be possible. French cats behave in the same way as British cats. Sociology, of-course dose not investigate Economic, Religious, Political, Legal, Moral or any other special kind of phenomenal in relation to human life and activities as such. If the methods of a study are scientific, the subject deserves the rank of a science. Sociology, no doubt, does borrow its subject-matter from other social sciences, but it does not add to it; instead, it gives this subject-matter a completely new form.
Some biologists and psychologists think that people behave as they do because they are animals who primarily act according to their instincts. Political science concentrates on political activities and so on. Its object is not so much to describe as to search for causes and explanations. The social location of people-their culture, social class, gender, religion, age and education b. Sociology is not concerned with the reformation of society as su~ch nor is it directly involved in social planning or dir ected change. To sum up, the value of Sociology lies in the fact that it keeps us up-to-date on modern situations; it contributes to making good citizens; it contributes to the solution of community problems; it adds to the knowledge of the society; it helps the individual find his relation to society; it identifies good government with community and it helps one to understand causes of things and so on. Without the research done in the theoretical and experimental sciences modern techniques for curing disease or those for bridge-building would be impossible.
It is on account of such relationships that there is human inter-action. We have two different ways of explaining human behaviour. Herbert Spencer took an organic view of society and he too was not concerned with the valuation aspect of society. Theoretically, twins should be the exact same in all aspects. It has removed so many cobwebs from our minds and social phenomenon is now understood in the light of scientific knowledge and enquiry.