All classical governments enacted policies to facilitate commercial activities. Trade networks gradually extended throughout India, and far beyond. One of the greatest linguists in world history flourished sometime in the following centuries. Then, powerful cities imposed their rule on surrounding areas through conquest and the first empires were born. The Qin and Han dynasties of Classical China developed a kind of government called bureaucracy.
Also in India, Sanskrit was the language of educated people. Indian religion generally did not stress the importance of politics, but for the preeminence of priests as sources of authority, while the Han rulers of China played a major role in promoting Confucian philosophy as a statement of Chinese values and in encouraging the worship. Stone implements and cave paintings from this period have been discovered in many parts of the South Asia. It is believed that the Vedas were orally revealed by Brahma to certain sages, who heard them and passed them down in an oral tradition. Chinese officers communicated troop movements in battle by sounding gongs, bells, drums and signaling with flags.
The religion of Hinduism originated in Northern India, near the river Indus, about 4000 years ago and is the world's oldest existing religion. This period also saw the beginning of Hindu temple architecture. The floods damaged the crops. What are the practices of Hindus? A murti is a sacred stautue of God, or a god or goddess. This usually involves one leader, or a small group of individuals, having authority over all regions of a state from a single location, such as a capital city. Competing speculations about both religious and what we would call scientific issues were freely pursued. The spread of such temples — either located in natural caves which have been shaped to create a religious space, or entirely carved from rock — was originally a Buddhist innovation, which Hindus later adopted.
The Upanisads - These consider the nature of the individual soul Atman and the universal soul Brahman. This era saw the increase of trade with Rome which had begun c. The city of Rome built fortifications on the seven hills surrounding the city. Some scholars believe that it was in this period, especially under , that Buddhism became established as a major religion within ancient India. Ancient China and ancient India both consider religion to be very important.
The Romans thought these basic precepts were universal to all people; without them different cultures could not even engage in trade. It was preceded by the Vedic Age, in which tribal societies of Indo-European origin, dominated by warrior chiefs, had established themselves in northern India. Most classical civilizations built fortresses to shore up their most vulnerable areas; only the Gupta did not do this, perhaps because as a decentralized state it was less able to garner resources for the collective good. He was a remarkable and attractive ruler: compassionate, tolerant, firm, seeking justice and well-being for all his subjects. Hinduism is not a Single Religion. With regards to cultural traditions and innovations both developed similar technologies in their period.
Trade was restricted initially to local areas, and barter was an essential component of trade, cattle being the unit of value in large-scale transactions, which further limited the geographical reach of the trader. Compare and Contrast Classical China and India The foundations were set for these two Classical developing empires: China, separated from other developing empires and India, supported by them. New states With trade came walled towns and cities, and with towns and cities came organized states. Eventually, all of the classical civilizations could not deal with the problems created by their own internal or external crises. Yin was the female force, being passive, dark and cold.
Consequently, a legion could fight as a whole unit or be divided and maneuvered according to the needs of battle into fighting groups ranging from 8 to 480 men. Ravana abducted Sita so they must find her. Spoken language was introduced in China during the Zhou Dynasty. The kingdom of Magadha, one of the 16 great Janapadas had become paramount over other kingdoms of the Ganges Valley. Because of this earliest oral tradition continuing even now when the Vedas are available in the written form, the Vedas are still known to be Sruti or shruti - ' that which is heard '. How is Hinduism different from other faiths? Both China and India used social hierarchy systems, but they were used differently. They reinstated Confucian thought and revived and improved upon the Han style of bureaucracy.
Although stability, regularity, and conservatism seem to have been the hallmarks of this people, it is unclear who wielded authority, whether an aristocratic, priestly, or commercial minority. The term meant pure and implied the invaders' conscious attempts at retaining their tribal identity and roots while maintaining a social distance from earlier inhabitants. The first and most extensive trade networks were actually waterways like the , the Tigris and the Euphrates in present-day Iraq and the Yellow River in China. The Romans excelled in roads, which they called Viae. As well as religious writings, ancient India produced works on mathematics, medicine, and politics.