The theory of was developed in the mid-1950s to explain why people of strong convictions are so resistant in changing their beliefs even in the face of undeniable contradictory evidence. Researchers have found that individual media consumers will seek out programs to suit their individual emotional and cognitive needs. This shift suggested that while the media has effects on consumers' behavior such as their voting behavior, these effects are limited and influenced indirectly by interpersonal discussions and the influence of. For the latter, accidental exposure, which the new car owner does not avoid, will not introduce any dissonance; while for the former individual, who also does not avoid information, dissonance may be accidentally introduced. For instance, this model proposes that people cannot evaluate the quality of inconsistent information objectively and fairly because they tend to store more of the consistent information and use this as their reference point. Their conclusions showed that older adults were consistently better at promoting and practicing good health behaviors, without thinking about death, compared to young adults.
Researchers explored the impact of social information and its level of physical attractiveness. The sensory receptors of a consumer are engaged by product or brand cues through sight, sound, smell, taste and texture. Those who wrote an attitude-consistent essay showed higher levels of confirmatory information search Fischer, 2011. Disadvantages Selective marketing campaigns have drawbacks. He argued that the media effects of relaying or spreading new public messages or ideas were minimal because there is a wide variety of ways in which individuals filter such content. But a consequence of emotional memories having priority is that pertinent neutral information may be lost in the aftermath of an emotional event.
They will begin to prefer information that supports their original decision and neglect conflicting information. Another application on the social advantage in selective memory is with reproduction. It increases the motivation to justify their positions through selective exposure to confirmatory information Fischer, 2011. Find sources: — · · · · October 2008 Selective retention, in relating to the mind, is the process whereby people more accurately remember messages that are closer to their interests, and beliefs, than those that are in contrast with their values and beliefs, selecting what to keep in the , narrowing the. Music selection is also affected by selective exposure. These strategies attempt to paint competitive brands as generic, unreliable and of lesser quality while reinforcing perceptions of historical prominence, quality and cultural superiority of the brand at the focus of the selective campaign.
Basic and Applied Social Psychology. Extensive market research resources are required to allocate information on specific market segments, and long lead times are required to create print campaigns and other advertising tools specifically for them. Consumers tend to select media content that exposes and confirms their own ideas while avoiding information that argues against their opinion. They begin to think that there is not enough data or evidence in this particular field in which they are told to make a decision about. Selective marketing, also known as selective advertising, refers to marketing initiatives created to generate interest in a specific brand while abandoning concentration on product category or class. However, it is important to note the difference between a situation when there is no dissonance and when the information has no relevance to the present or future behavior. When a product is inconsistent with these factors, the consumer will withdraw attention.
Due to our greater tendency toward selective exposure, current political campaigns have been characterized as being extremely partisan and polarized. Politics are more likely to inspire selective exposure among consumers as opposed to single exposure decisions. While there are mixed findings of peoples' willingness to participate in the political processes when they encounter disagreement, the authors argue that the issue of selectivity needs to be further examined in order to understand whether there is a truly deliberative discourse in online media environment. Fischer suggested that people have an inner need to ensure that their beliefs and behaviors are consistent. Dissonance causes feelings of unhappiness, discomfort, or distress. The reduction in following a decision can be achieved by selectively looking for decision-consonant information and avoiding contradictory information.
Social media can get people talking — and keep them talking — with sometimes lightning speed. This image, which can be seen as a young woman or an older woman, serves as an example of how individuals can choose to perceive the same image differently. At this stage all of the senses are engaged in receiving brand marketing communicate messages. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. If the dissonance becomes greater than the resistance to change, then the least resistant elements of cognition will be changed, reducing dissonance. Further evidence for this polarization in the political blogosphere can be found in the Lawrence et al.
His work has appeared in numerous print and online publications. The foundation of this theory is rooted in the , which asserts that when individuals are confronted with contrasting ideas, certain mental are activated to produce harmony between new ideas and pre-existing beliefs, which results in cognitive equilibrium. Because of this, an individual will avoid such conflicting information in the future since it produces this discomfort, and they will gravitate towards messages sympathetic to their own previously held conceptions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. In an experiment that employed commitment manipulations, it impacts perceived decision certainty. A group for which only two pieces of decision-relevant information were given had experienced lower levels of selective exposure than the other group who had ten pieces of information to evaluate. If two cognitive elements exist in a dissonant relationship, the magnitude of dissonance matches the resistance to change.
While this process seems to have an evolutionary advantage, evidence suggests that when memories are selectively recalled other information is lost. People can mentally dissect the information they are exposed to and select favorable evidence, while ignoring the unfavorable. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. An avid surfer, Wallace enjoys writing about travel and outdoor activities throughout the world. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Selective exposure is a theory within the practice of , often used in media and research, that historically refers to individuals' tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding information.