For these routes to be viable, a medication must be water-soluble or in suspension. Solid inserts, which release the drug continuously and slowly, are also available, but they may be hard to put in and keep in place. Drug for uncooperative, nauseous or unconscious patients must he administered by injection. Increases in intestinal motility e. These changes have often resulted in improved patient adherence to the therapeutic regimen and pharmacologic response. Many drugs can be administered orally as liquids, capsules, tablets, or chewable tablets. These are aimed at particular markets where taking tablets may be problematic.
Side effects can include those that occur when the drug is deposited directly in the lungs such as cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and lung irritation , spread of the drug into the environment possibly affecting people other than the one taking the drug , and contamination of the device used for nebulization particularly when the device is reused and inadequately cleaned. This route is one of the safest route as the drug cannot product poisonous effects. Let us go to your recent years, some countries have begun to legalize cannabis use and others are beginning to see the possibility of doing so. The patient cannot medicament on his own in most cases. But still this route has advantages over oral route. How quickly the drug is absorbed into the bloodstream depends, in part, on the blood supply to the muscle: The sparser the blood supply, the longer it takes for the drug to be absorbed. Most drugs do not have this availability by the oral route so the dose given orally is usually higher than that given parenterally.
Rectal Route: in solid forms such as suppositories or in liquid forms such as enema are given by this route. An immediate physiological response can be achieved if necessary, which can be of prime consideration in clinical condition such as cardiac arrest, astharna and shock. Once there, it is distributed to the rest of the body including the brain. Ocular drugs are almost always used for their local effects. Intranasal administration is easy and acceptable to both humans and animals. Inhaled Pros: Extremely high rate of absorption.
Sublingual Route: Sublingual route involves tablets placed under the tongue or between cheeks or Gingiva. Subcutaneous: Subcutaneous route might be used for the arm, forearm, thigh and subscapular space. Drugs are usually injected into the muscle of the upper arm, thigh, or buttock. For the intravenous route, a needle is inserted directly into a vein. The volume administered is often limited to 6 to 8 L at one time, but the tube can be left in place for repeated fluid administration. Injection into bone marrow This route may be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Although horses do appear to absorb some fluid following enema administration, this is typically not the most effective route for hydration.
Intraperitoneal route: Intraperitoneal route may be used for peritoneal dialysis. Also, the potential for greater flexibility in a variety of clinical situations exists, often precluding the need to establish intravenous access, which is a particular benefit for children. If you require medication, for whatever ailment, when taking a medication due to whatever aliment, the drug administration can vary depending on various circumstances, for example, the desired effect of the medication, whether the medication is intended to be local aimed at a specific areaof the body or systemic aimed at the whole body , as well as the patient's well-being. Time of Action using Different Routes of Administration take different time durations after injection using different routes to perform their actions. Oral route: This route of drug administration is safer and also inexpensive. Such administration is frequently complex and confusing. Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and medications such as insulin, morphine, diacetylmorphine and goserelin.
Drug Administration on Dosage and Time Dosage To correctly determine how much of a medication you should be taken, you should always seek advice from a medical professional. A drug that is administered rectally will in general depending on the drug have a faster onset, higher bioavailability, shorter peak, and shorter duration than the oral route. Martin PhD, in , 2011 Routes of Administration Routes of administration greatly affect bioavailability by changing the number of biologic barriers a drug must cross or by changing the exposure of drug to pumping and metabolic mechanisms. Intraperitoneal administration is one of the most frequently-used parenteral routes in rodents. It is suitable for people of all ages including infants, children, adults and old age people.
Usage of depends on its physical properties, chemical properties, speed of action, need and bypass effect. The pulmonary alveoli represent a large surface and a minimal barrier to diffusion. For people with mental problems: Researchers from the University of Maryland noted that marijuana acts as a soothing or relaxing in some mental disorders. Alternatively, absorption of some drugs e. Gene Delivery Directly into a Regional Circulation or an Organ or Tissue Compartment Direct gene delivery into a specific tissue offers several potential advantages over systemic gene transfer. In theory, this could result in higher levels of antibiotics at the site of infection, although with many pneumonias diffusion through the affected lung must be minimal. Intravenous injections: Intravenous injections might be applied to the cubital, basilic and cephalic veins.
The liver has extensive metabolic processes that can affect drug bioavailability. Although this route of administration is rarely used, its main advantage is to provide a long-term therapeutic effect for example, etonogestrel that is implanted for contraception may last up to 3 years. Thus, absorption from the lungs can be very rapid and complete. Before applying ear drops, people should thoroughly clean the ear with a moist cloth and dry it. It is the route of choice in human being but it is avoided in animals because of restraining problems. Intraarterial route: This method is used for chemotherapy in cases of malignant tumors and in angiography. So this adds up the cost.
A small amount of local anesthetic is often used to numb the injection site. Topical Pros: Easy to administer; extremely un-invasive; high rate of patient satisfaction. The cons of marijuana More immediate effects: When smoking marijuana the effects that can occur most quickly are disorientation, tachycardia, physical uncoordination. Drugs that can be given by the otic route include hydrocortisone to relieve inflammation , ciprofloxacin to treat infection , and benzocaine to numb the ear. Intrapleural route: Penicillin may be injected in cases of lung empyma by intrapleural route. This technique has some similarity to epidural anesthesia, and may confuse these two techniques. Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more gradually.