The Balwant Rai Mehta Committee report has envisaged the Samiti as a single representative and vigorous democratic institution to take charge of all aspects of development in rural areas. Next year, report of one more important committee came out. As per this initiative, the Gram Panchayats would get consolidated funds on the basis of the population during the financial year. He acts as the executive head of the Panchayat, represents it in the Panchayat Samiti as its spokesman and coordinates its activities and those of other local institutions like cooperatives. Launching of Panchayati Raj in India The Balwant Rai Mehta report was greeted very warmly, and Panchayati raj was introduced with great fanfare all over the country. Panchayati Raj is a system of rural local self-government in India. The members of the Gram Panchayat—the Panchas and Sarpanch chairman —are directly elected.
Any matters relating to the election of panchayats can be questioned only by means of Election petition following certain procedures prescribed by the State legislature. This continued for 5-6 years and after that the institutions started crippling due to lack of resources, political will, and bureaucratic apathy and change the government priorities. This programme was not successful. After this many committees were formed to strengthen and review the functioning of Panchayati Raj Institutions at gross roots level of democracy. The Government Act of 1935, Malaviya Committee 1956 , Balwant Rai Mehta Committee 1957 , Ashok Mehta Committee 1978 , Hanu 1985 , Singhvi Committee 1986 etc have dealt with development, functioning autonomy and freedom, weakness and remedial measures for strengthening of Panchayati Raj system.
But it was not successful except for few states. It was during the third five-year plan, rural development strategies were evolved and attempts were made to constitute three-tier Panchayat system was made. Direct elections of all members in all the three tiers are made mandatory. The Royal Commission on Decentralisation 1907 under the chairmanship of C. India has a chequered history starting from self-sufficient and self-governing village communities that survived the rise and fall of empires in the past to the modern institutions of governance with constitutional support. The middle-level panchayats are generally known as Panchayat Samitis. However, if a State so decides, members of the State Legislature and Parliament may also be represented in a district and middle-level panchayats.
This commission was of the view that enacting any law on the Panchayats is exclusive power vested in the states and rather than adding a new chapter in the Constitution, there should be a uniform law, applicable throughout India. To those, who have considered the villages the real India, the innovation is rational, overdue and beyond criticism. The committee made the following recommendations: 1. The Britishers had created local self government, as early as 1687 the Municipal corporation of Madras was formed. They have some specific executive function in the establishment, maintenance and expansion of secondary, vocational and industrial school. It was seen as a means to deepen democracy, make governance accountable and responsive.
The provincial autonomy under the Government of India Act, 1935, marked the evolution of panchayats in. It seems to have passed through four distinct phases in its short span of life: 1. The Panchayati Raj bodies were expected to awaken political consciousness on the countryside and to improve a democratic process in rural India. The modern and its are not to be confused with either the traditional system nor with the extra-constitutional panchayats or caste panchayats found in parts of northern India. Phases of Development : Self-governing rural local bodies are described in Indian context as the institutions of democratic decentralization or Panchayati Raj. Commercial: Supervision of community orchards, grazing ground, etc. He is the ex- officio chairman of the Standing Committees of the Samiti.
Standing Committees of Panchayati Raj System: : There are three standing committees of Gaon Panchayat, they are: a Development committee. Hence, committees were constituted by various authorities to advise the Centre on different aspects of decentralisation. The entrustment of all planning and developmental activities to these bodies; and 3. The committee recommended that the base of the Panchayati Raj system should be a Mandal Panchayats. What is the duration of the Local Government bodies? These are general standing committee, finance and audit committee, social justice committee and planning and development committee. Block Panchayat or Block Samiti 3.
Exemption from the intermediate tier is given to the small States having less than 20 Exemption from the intermediate tier is given to the small States having less than 20 lakhs population. Functions — Standing committees shall perform functions to the extent; powers are delegated to them by the Zilla Parishad. The Sarpanch occupies a pivotal position in Gram Panchayat system. Increasing awareness and participation of rural peoples for income generating and poverty eradication programmes, selection of beneficiaries for such programme. Summary To conclude, local self-government is one of the most innovative governance change processes our country has gone through. Critically discuss the role of Panchayat Raj institutions in the empowerment of women. Developmental: Preparation and execution of plans for the promotion of agriculture, irrigation, co-operatives, cottage and small-scale industries.
When the colonial administration came under severe financial pressure after the 1857 uprising, the sought was decentralization in terms of transferring responsibility for road and public works to local bodies. In order to realize these goals it become necessary to devise institutional mechanisms, mobilize resources both human and material , and transform existing institutional structures and value patterns with a view to build a new social and economic order based on the values of equality, freedom and justice. The first was that it abolished the village land record office and created a company official called Patwari. Meetings to be held in non agricultural seasons 4. The 33 Zila Parishads at present have 1014 constituencies.