We can certainly see a vase - but we can also see two faces. Jelsma, The Matching Familiar Figure Test: Computer or Experimenter Controlled Administration. You may not be able to change the basic learning style. This helps them make the subject matter more relatable to their own lives. Reflective learners also take breaks when reading to really think about and digest what they have read. We all know that in language learning you can draw a basic distinction between students who are reflective and cautious, and so tend to remain within the task you set for them, and students who are impulsive and more prepared to take risks, to experiment with language, and so are more likely to go beyond the task; you can identify people who are, or tend to be, rather anxious,and thus are less tolerant of ambiguity, and people who tend to be relaxed,which allows them to tolerate ambiguity better. If you tend to be an introverted type of person, this will probably mean that a single stimulus of low intensity will activate your mental processing; you will dislike excessive input.
Research has demonstrated that teacher expectancy affects classroom achievement and participation in both positive and negative ways. The point we want to make is that there is no scientific evidence whatsoever that learning styles provide a useful construct to base the selection of instructional methods on, not that instructional methods should not be sensitive for differences between learners. Educational and Psychological Measurement 48, pp. On one hand we could try to offer them a variety of learning opportunities to match the range of styles which is represented in the classroom. . Karen has been a fan of paintings and portraits since before we began dating.
However, this does not mean that we or our students are prisoners, so to say, of our own selves. Although reflective learning is not necessarily easy and often takes time to master, it does help students to make better connections from what they have learned. Learning Styles Centers Learning style is a concept utilized worldwide. It was made very clear to the students that the terms used in the questionnaire were only descriptive, that there were no right or wrong answers, that there were no better or worse scores, and that the results of the questionnaire would be used only to get a better understanding of the class and to improve on working methods. However, if we wanted them not just to reinforce their strong approach, but also to take the opportunity to practise their weak approach, we would need to make the purpose and demands of the task very clear, and then offer them some help with specific strategies. In the same way, there are situations where your orientation to the form of the language will come in useful e.
Teacher-student style wars in the language classroom: Research insights and suggestions. If we relied on self-report alone, we would be getting a twisted perspective. Milton Keynes, Open University Press, 1981. On the other hand, high conceptual learners are very quick learners and they use an inventive type of approach to learn their lessons. Another possibility is to add more action elements for impulsive learners. All my life, I was either told I was a solitary learner, verbal learner and even a physical learner, but was that even accurate? I know she said this to curb my tendency of being such a museum sourpuss, but it did actually have an impact on me. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, Chapter 10, pp.
Let s start from a simple experiment, which is based on a well known psychological test. David Kolb Kolb developed an entire learning cycle, which includes elements of feeling, watching, thinking, and doing. There is no doubt that the information we get about our students learning styles must be complemented by similar information on our own styles. Analytic learning style Focuses on specific problems and proceeds by means of hypothetical-deductive reasoning; object oriented; independent; dislikes failure; prefers logical didactic presentation. Learning and cognitive styles 5. With lapses in concentration levels, children cannot pay attention to their lessons for a long time.
Basically, this can be done in two ways - formally and informally. The point is that simple two-way interactions between learning styles and instructional methods, either based on a preferential model or a compensation model, do not take additional relevant factors such as the nature of the knowledge and skills that are taught or the context in which they are taught into account. Having more of an ability is usually considered beneficial while having a particular cognitive style simply denotes a tendency to behave in a certain manner. On the other hand, many of them are high conceptual learners. But what about our communication-oriented learners facing, say, a grammar or vocabulartask that implies dealing with subtle differences in tense usage or shades of meaning in new words? So even if we should have a class of balanced students, we would still have to help them discover how different styles can be used under different circumstances.
This implies, as we have seen, helping them to recognize the purpose and the demands of a task, and then helping them to use also what is not their preferred style. This is much easier because there is a restricted amount of choices that can be either right or wrong. I wanted my project to be practical rather than academic, to contribute first and foremost to the improvement of communication in the classroom -so I chose those parameters which I felt would be most interesting for both students and teachers to think and talk about: · analytic vs synthetic; · form- vs communication-oriented; · reflective vs impulsive; · independent vs dependent meaning, in this case, how far one tends to be autonomous and personally responsible for one´s learning ; ·and, finally, individual- vs group-oriented meaning how far one prefers to work on one´s own rather than with others. It's more than just memorizing some facts, formulas, or dates. By our own styles I mean, first of all, our own learning styles, because I think that we tend to shape our teaching on the basis of the ways in which language learning has come and still comes easiest to us. Cognitive learning is a lifelong process that involves honing several mental processes.
In other words, Dewey advocated that students need to think and mull over what they read and encounter, and after doing this, they can apply that knowledge better. You would rather watch rather than take action. In addition, applying the five W's, which means asking questions using who, what, when, why, and where to what they are learning is a technique employed by reflective learners. So the first, and perhaps easiest, way to identify learning styles is to describe them in terms of polar oppositions, as we have just done for a more in-depth discussion see Prokop 1989 and Schmeck 1988; see also. Teacher provides information Active 4. In this paper I will be discussing three main issues: - what are learning styles? Lt is a sort of chicken or egg dilemma; that is, should we accommodate personal characteristics or should we try to change them? Reflective learning involves students thinking about what they have read, done, or learned, relating the lesson at hand to their own lives and making meaning out of the material. Known as the 4Mat Curriculum Development Model Perception Concrete Abstract Processing Reflective 1.
Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1992. Some strategies for reflective learning include discussing the material, stopping and thinking about what was said or read, and making an effort to apply the material to one's own life. The teacher motivates the student 2. Quick paced and crisp assignments may fit the mental makeup of such children. We would certainly reinforce their strong points but we would neglect their weak points - and, as we know, we have a tendency to become weaker and weaker in those areas which we deliberately choose to avoid.
I deliberately avoid the term cognitive style because this seems to refer only to mental operations, while we will soon see that the term learning style can also include affective, social and even physiological behaviours. The project has involved students and teachers discussing their own learning styles on the basis of a questionnaire, and has so far raised many interesting issues. On the other hand, we could help students to shape or adjust their learning approach to suit the requirements of the tasks. Innovate 1 6 , 2005. Please use the following format when citing this chapter: Spring-Keller, F. On the other hand, people with a group style preference are likely to be more dependent on a group or an external authority to define their identity and role; they tend to be motivated by extrinsic rewards and punishments; they may benefit from being given a work plan and rely more heavily on the features of the task itself.