In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Follow the same procedures if the book has multiple authors. Notes and Bibliography Method Both the original and the secondary sources must be listed in the note; however, only the secondary source appears in the reference list see : General Format: 1. If you are referencing the name of a journal, the journal name would be in italics. Be careful to avoid plagiarism though by changing at least 50% of the sentence. Book with no author: Title of Book.
Many digital images, films and videos, encyclopedia articles, dictionary entries, web pages, and more do not have author names listed. The store was locked and there was a note from Grama on the house door. You may even find that it has been miss-quoted or taken out of context. However, there are other things you should do when paraphrasing quotes, too. In-text referencing when using direct quotes from a newspaper article without an author.
Page numbers and the year of publication are not necessary, but you can add the name and the title of the work very easily. There is no need to note that you are quoting a source within the source as part of this reference. List the actual source where you found the quote in the in-text citation and in the Works Cited list. At best, people will wonder where all your information is coming from. Published Interview: Lastname, Firstname of interviewee, place where interview was held, by Interviewer's Firstname Lastname, date. List the author of the source and the page number or numbers that you used in your reference.
Generally speaking, to cite a secondary source, you would cite the original source in the text of your paper, but you would provide a reference to the secondary source in the reference list. They must be included together in the parentheses, or you can mention the name of the author in your writing and put just the year in parentheses afterwards. Understand the content you want to paraphrase. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. When paraphrasing quotes, change at least 50 percent of the sentence, use a thesaurus for help, make sure you understand the content and avoid looking at the quote. Aim to change at least half of the sentence into a new structure, but also make sure that the grammar is correct and the meaning of the sentence is still clear.
Some economists have indicated that technological advancements spur economic growth Johnson 16; Jones 37-38; Smith 2. There are exceptions, but in general the best practice is to quote from primary sources. Cite a publication with one author. If you need to write a psychology paper, then you are going to probably need to reference a number of different journal articles. If there are more than three authors, write the last name of the author who appears first. Though basic guidelines are similar, citation requirements vary depending on the documentation style used.
Looking for more information on abbreviations? This article was co-authored by. Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. Book with two authors: Lastname, Firstname and Lastname, Firstname. Check out our page on Edited Books and Anthologies Edited books and anthologies often include chapters or sections, each written by an individual author or a small group of authors. Block quotes are multiple sentences quoted directly from a source which take up more than 4 lines in your paper, or no more than 3 if you are quoting verse. If the title is for a long work, list it in italics.
If there is an exclamation point or question mark inside your quote, keep it inside the quotation marks. Personal message: Lastname, Firstname of sender. Click on another answer to find the right one. This article has also been viewed 962,491 times. Both citations in the examples above, 263 and Wordsworth 263 , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If there is an exclamation point or question mark inside the quote you are using, keep it inside the quotation marks.
Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. By citing the source within the text, you give your readers a chance to find the source material themselves, should they want more information about a particular quote or idea. If you have more than one source from the same author, just add a shortened title for the particular source you're using to the author's name in the in-text citation. Web page: Lastname, First Initials date of publication. Leaving citations out— The classic move of ignoring the problem only magnifies the problem. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
Dropped quotes are partial phrases taken from the middle of a piece of text. Interview with Name of Interviewer. Readers who want more information than what you've provided in your paper can use the cited sources. Often secondary material will give you hints to finding the best parts of the primary sources. Refer to your specific instructions to see if you need a works cited or bibliography. Do not use a colon if the block quote is part of the sentence above it. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite a secondary source in your class assignments and projects.