As time was progressing, the civilizations have been developing techniques to better their ways of life. India, like the Olmec, did not have a central government; rather, they were united by a single language, a single religion, and thus a single culture. To these ingredients for civilization, the Shang added a recorded blood line of ancestors to worship, a writing system, tribute, and rituals that they believed enabled communication with the ancestors. There is no evidence of a political system. The Egyptians therefore treated the Pharaoh like a god and prepared him for his afterlife by building huge tombs such as the Great Pyramid c. There were numerous indus sites along that river bed.
These civilizations shared many characteristics that contributed to their success. With the emergence of these civilizations came political, environmental, religious, social, economic, technological and architecture developments that resulted in the significance in each. Meanwhile, India initiated the crystallization of sugar and developed methods for making cotton textile. Although the civilizations are located on different continents, they share similar social, political, and economic beliefs from their intellectual developments to types of government to religious beliefs and trading systems. In old Babylonian times a town or a precinct mayor led a group or council of elders. One of the first Mesopotamian cities, Uruk, had 5-miles of fortified walls. This new group of specialists was considered to be higher in status than farmers.
For instances, leaders in early river societies claimed that they were divinely ordained. Their rulers were Pharaohs and kings, however in their society, people were slaves. Ancient Egypt consisted of the eight-mile wide strip of arable land along the 4000+ mile river plus a relatively small 100-mile wide area around the delta. Once the waters receded, farmers planted wheat and barley on fertile soft alluvium. They had many similarities, such as characteristics of early civilizations and social structures, but they also had their differences.
The Pharaoh was such an elite person that they needed people in their society slaves to build pyramids and elaborate palaces for them. Egypt and China both had an abundance of waters. This poverty level persists despite the human intervention World Bank, 2001. There is increasing evidence that Olmecs practiced ritual warfare to supply rulers with humans whose death and torture was meant to ensure that the soil would be fertile and rains would continue. This makes sense, since you need a constant supply of fresh water to sustain early agricultural practices and provide for a settled and growing society. The author hypothetically says that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be.
Much of the patriarchal structure was based off of the contents of the Lawbook of Manu, which contained moral traditions and instructions for proper gender relationships. At its peak, its population was 5 million. No natural barriers for protection 3. On the other hand, the Egyptians, Indians, and Chinese had similar monarchy systems. Indus is populous and has a strong culture too, but is not as successful as the Chinese in industry. It is known that rulers reigned from large, powerful citadels in the cities.
There is a few key characteristic I would like to mention such as, they have developed the sewage system, which it was a very big deal, and they have created what is like the modern road system. The main reason is as follow: The Indus Valley Civilization was composed of 406 sites in Pakistan, 616 sites in India and some in Afghanistan. The Chinese based their religion on ancestor worship and they tried to use their ancestors for divination to light their way to the future. This flexibility implies that the Indus language may have been used for many purposes other than just business transactions, e. Also during this time, the Shang dynasty took over when they acquired bronze metal-working technology, improved their writing system and, in the process, became a full-fledged civilization. In retrospect, Egypt and the Shang-Zhou dynasty both shared similarities in their government which helped them grow as a large, powerful society, but also varied in some methods mostly because of religion beliefs. The people of Mesopotamia came from the hills north of Mesopotamia where they farmed without irrigation.
And even though societies are of the same type, it does not mean they are the same in every… 1710 Words 7 Pages 1. We call these people the Harappan civilizations, although really they were diverse and independent cities, sort of like those in Mesopotamia. Afro-Eurasian Civilizations There are four settled societies that each developed agriculture independently along major rivers that are traditionally considered the early river valley civilizations. As people began to accumulate wealth, men became the conduit for inheritance, thus establishing a patriarchal method of passing property to the sons. Egypt and Mesopotamia have similar points in their political areas. Sumerian traders travelled as far east as India, sailing for weeks to reach that distant land. Like Sumer and Harappa, Shang, and Olmec, the Egyptians developed a writing system.
Unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt, there was plenty of rain for the farmers of the first Indus River villages. Egyptian wrote their own language called hieroglyphics. Egypt and China Egypt had a theocracy government while China had a monarchy government. Thank you so much for reading. Agriculture flourished along the Nile River, and sorghum was a popular crop to be grown along the river.
The Indus civilization was located between two rivers, the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, giving it a large fertile plain for agriculture. There were three main civilizations in the Pre-Columbian era, the Maya, Inca and the Aztec civilizations. Each class lived a different lifestyle. Some copper script was found that may be coins that pre-date the Archaemenid coins by 1000 years. The Nile River did have an extensive trade route system, with upper and lower routes, however only some livestock was the major import into the civilization. These Irrigation systems are one of the reasons for such a successful agricultural civilization because the irrigation systems take advantage of the fertile soil created from the two rivers.