The James—Lange theory is a hypothesis on the origin and nature of and is one of the earliest theories of emotion within modern psychology. Example: You're taking the last bus of the night, and you're the only passenger. And the two-factor theory of emotion, which Schachter and Singer developed, maintains that cognitive processing of physiological arousal must occur before we experience emotions. If you were to encounter some threat in your environment, like a venomous snake in your backyard, your sympathetic nervous system would initiate significant physiological arousal, which would make your heart race and increase your respiration rate. One study is measuring happiness but giving rewards sporadically through out the experiment while the other study is measuring anger by giving the participants a very difficult cross word puzzle to solve. Psychologists have taken a turn at figuring out how our physiological reactions are connected to emotions.
Psychology: The Science of Experience. The theory asserts that the thalamic region is the brain area responsible for emotional responses to experienced stimuli Adcock, 1976. In contrast, Cannon-Bard's theory of emotion states that the thalamus in the brain sends simultaneous signals to the cortex and autonomic nervous system, causing the emotion and physiological reaction to occur simultaneously. For example, imagine sitting in a dark room all by yourself. And this one of those topics that I think a lot of us take for granted. The specific pathway involved in the experience of emotion was also described by James. My psychology group scheduled a study session.
In one interesting field study by Dutton and Aron 1974 , an attractive young woman approached individual young men as they crossed a wobbly, long suspension walkway hanging more than 200 feet above a river in British Columbia, Canada. The other men that received injections of epinephrine were told either that the injection would have no side effects or that it would result in a side effect unrelated to a sympathetic response, such as itching feet or headache. Cannon Bard Theory of Emotion As you are hiking through the woods, a bear walks out onto the path. Cannon argued that visceral responses are slow and not sensitive enough to elicit emotional responses. If you ask someone to describe what an emotion is, they might say it is a feeling, sentiment, reaction, passion, excitement, or sensation. Only after the body responds does one then experience emotion — fear.
But it's producing two very different emotions in different people, who have different appraisals on the event occurring. The theory itself emphasizes how physiological arousal, with the exclusion of emotional behavior, is the determiner of emotional feelings. You rush to your car, lock the doors behind you and rush out of the parking garage to head home. In the Lazarus theory, next comes appraisal or labeling the situation. Example: You're late leaving work, and as you head across the parking lot to your car, you hear footsteps behind you in the dark.
The two-factor theory of emotion asserts that the ex p e ri e n c e of e motion is d e t e r min e d by the int e nsity of the arousal w e are ex p e ri e n c ing, but that the c o gniti v e appraisal of the s i tuation d e t e rmin e s w hat the e motion w ill b e. In the late 19th century, Charles Darwin, the scientist who is most famous for his ideas about evolution, recognized that projecting our emotions on our faces can intensify our experience of that emotion, and that subduing those projections can diminish the emotion. And that proposed that the experience of emotion depends on how the experience is cognitively appraised. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, the ex p e ri e n c e of an e motion is a cc ompani e d b y ph y siologi c al arousal. Male participants were randomly assigned to one of several groups.
Evolutionary Theories More than a century ago, in the 1870s, Charles Darwin proposed that emotions evolved because they had adaptive value. This seems to be a very strange reaction to such a positive outcome for the university and the students, but it can be explained through the spillover of the arousal caused by happiness to destructive behaviors. The James-Lange theory claims that an event first causes physiological arousal and also a physical response. After receiving these injections, participants waited in a room with someone else they thought was another subject in the research project. Emotions are complex and have both physical and mental components. This approach proposes that the arousal and the emotion are not independent, but rather that the emotion depends on the arousal.
Both theorists defined emotion as a feeling of physiological changes due to a stimulus, but the theorists focused on different aspects of emotion. For example, research has shown that heart rate is always higher in people experiencing anger and fear rather those those who are experiencing happiness or even sadness. The Cannon-Bard theory proposes that emotions and arousal occur at the same time. There are many different theories which attempt to identify how humans become emotional. Does your heart beat fast because you're excited, or are you excited because your heart is beating fast? Barrett and have reviewed a variety of alternative models to James's theory of emotion.
And lastly, they felt that the physiological response system was just too slow to produce emotions that often seemed to happen almost instantly. So take skydiving, for example. Maybe you'll start to smile as you're holding your cat. Hearing this noise provokes your heart to race and for you to run away. It was indeed named by the philosopher , who would have misrepresented James' ideas on emotion.